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Finance

Accounting and Invoicing

France

FEC – Fichier des Écritures Comptables #

An FEC Fichier des Écritures Comptables audit file contains all the accounting data and entries recorded in all the accounting journals for a financial year. The entries in the file must be arranged in chronological order.

Since January 1st, 2014, every French company is required to produce and transmit this file upon request by the tax authorities for audit purposes.

FEC Import #

To make the onboarding of new users easier, CPA Books Enterprise’s French fiscal localization includes the FEC Import feature (module name: l10n_fr_fec_import), which enables the import of existing FEC files from older software.

To enable this feature, go to Accounting ‣ Configuration ‣ Settings ‣ Accounting Import, enable FEC Import, and Save.

Next, go to Accounting ‣ Configuration ‣ FEC Import, upload your FEC file, and click on Import.

File formats #

FEC files can only be in CSV format, as the XML format is not supported.

Our module expects the files to meet the following technical specifications:

  • Encoding: UTF-8, UTF-8-SIG and iso8859_15.
  • Separator: any of these: ; or | or , or TAB.
  • Line terminators: both CR+LF (\r\n) and LF (\n) character groups are supported.
  • Date format%Y%m%d

Fields description and use #

# Field name Description Use Format
01 JournalCode Journal Code journal.code and journal.name if JournalLib is not provided Alphanumeric
02 JournalLib Journal Label journal.name Alphanumeric
03 EcritureNum Numbering specific to each journal sequence number of the entry move.name Alphanumeric
04 EcritureDate Accounting entry Date move.date Date (yyyyMMdd)
05 CompteNum Account Number account.code Alphanumeric
06 CompteLib Account Label account.name Alphanumeric
07 CompAuxNum Secondary account Number (accepts null) partner.ref Alphanumeric
08 CompAuxLib Secondary account Label (accepts null) partner.name Alphanumeric
09 PieceRef Document Reference move.ref and move.name if EcritureNum is not provided Alphanumeric
10 PieceDate Document Date move.date Date (yyyyMMdd)
11 EcritureLib Account entry Label move_line.name Alphanumeric
12 Debit Debit amount move_line.debit Float
13 Credit Credit amount (Field name “Crédit” is not allowed) move_line.credit Float
14 EcritureLet Accounting entry cross reference (accepts null) move_line.fec_matching_number Alphanumeric
15 DateLet Accounting entry date (accepts null) unused Date (yyyyMMdd)
16 ValidDate Accounting entry validation date unused Date (yyyyMMdd)
17 Montantdevise Currency amount (accepts null) move_line.amount_currency Float
18 Idevise Currency identifier (accepts null) currency.name Alphanumeric

These two fields can be found in place of the others in the sence above.

12 Montant Amount move_line.debit or move_line.credit Float
13 Sens Can be “C” for Credit or “D” for Debit determines move_line.debit or move_line.credit Char

Implementation details #

The following accounting entities are imported from the FEC files: Accounts, Journals, Partners, and Moves.

Our module determines the encoding, the line-terminator character, and the separator that are used in the file.

A check is then performed to see if every line has the correct number of fields corresponding to the header.

If the check passes, then the file is read in full, kept in memory, and scanned. Accounting entities are imported one type at a time, in the following order.

Accounts #

Every accounting entry is related to an account, which should be determined by the field CompteNum.

Code matching #

Should a similar account code already be present in the system, the existing one is used instead of creating a new one.

Accounts in CPA Books generally have a number of digits that are default for the fiscal localization. As the FEC module is related to the French localization, the default number of relevant digits is 6.

This means that the account codes the trailing zeroes are right-trimmed, and that the comparison between the account codes in the FEC file and the ones already existing in CPA Books is performed only on the first six digits of the codes.

Reconcilable flag #

An account is technically flagged as reconcilable if the first line in which it appears has the EcritureLet field filled out, as this flag means that the accounting entry is going to be reconciled with another one.

Account type and Templates matching #

As the type of the account is not specified in the FEC format, new accounts are created with the default type Current Assets and then, at the end of the import process, they are matched against the installed Chart of Account templates. Also, the reconcile flag is also computed this way.

The match is done with the left-most digits, starting by using all digits, then 3, then 2.

The type of the account is then flagged as payable and reconcilable as per the account template.
Journals #

Journals are also checked against those already existing in CPA Books to avoid duplicates, also in the case of multiple FEC files imports.

Should a similar journal code already be present in the system, the existing one is used instead of creating a new one.

New journals have their name prefixed by the string FEC-.

The journals are not archived, the user is entitled to handle them as he wishes.
Journal type determination #

The journal type is also not specified in the format (as per the accounts) and therefore it is at first created with the default type general.

At the end of the import process, the type is determined as per these rules regarding related moves and accounts:

  • bank: Moves in these journals always have a line (debit or credit) impacting a liquidity account.
    cash / bank can be interchanged, so bank is set everywhere when this condition is met.
  • sale: Moves in these journals mostly have debit lines on receivable accounts and credit lines on tax income accounts.
    Sale refund journal items are debit/credit inverted.
  • purchase: Moves in these journals mostly have credit lines on payable accounts and debit lines on expense accounts.
    Purchase refund journal items are debit/credit inverted.
  • general: for everything else.
Partners #

Each partner keeps its Reference from the field CompAuxNum.

Moves #

Entries are immediately posted and reconciled after submission, using the EcritureLet field to do the matching between the entries themselves.

The EcritureNum field represents the name of the moves. We noticed that sometimes it may not be filled out. In this case, the field PieceRef is used.

Rounding issues #

There is a rounding tolerance with a currency-related precision on debit and credit (i.e., 0.01 for EUR). Under this tolerance, a new line is added to the move, named Import rounding difference, targeting the accounts:

  • 658000 Charges diverses de gestion courante, for added debits
  • 758000 Produits divers de gestion courante, for added credits
Missing move name #

Should the EcritureNum not be filled out, it may also happen that the PieceRef field is also not suited to determine the move name (it may be used as an accounting move line reference) leaving no way to actually find which lines are to be grouped in a single move, and effectively impeding the creation of balanced moves.

One last attempt is made, grouping all lines from the same journal and date (JournalLibEcritureDate). Should this grouping generate balanced moves (sum(credit) – sum(debit) = 0), then each different combination of journal and date creates a new move.

Should this attempt fail, the user is prompted an error message with all the move lines that are supposedly unbalanced.
Partner information #

If a line has the partner information specified, the information is copied to the accounting move itself if the targeted Journal is of type payable or receivable.

Export #

If you have installed the French fiscal localization, you should be able to download the FEC. To do so, go to Accounting ‣ Reporting ‣ France ‣ FEC.


French Accounting Reports #

If you have installed the French Accounting, you will have access to some accounting reports specific to France:

  • Bilan comptable
  • Compte de résultats
  • Plan de Taxes France

Get the VAT anti-fraud certification with CPA Books #

As of January 1st 2018, a new anti-fraud legislation comes into effect in France and DOM-TOM. This new legislation stipulates certain criteria concerning the inalterability, security, storage and archiving of sales data. These legal requirements are implemented in CPA Books , version 9 onward, through a module and a certificate of conformity to download.

Is my company required to use anti-fraud software? #

Your company is required to use an anti-fraud cash register software like CPA Books (CGI art. 286, I. 3° bis) if:

  • You are taxable (not VAT exempt) in France or any DOM-TOM,
  • Some of your customers are private individuals (B2C).

This rule applies to any company size. Auto-entrepreneurs are exempted from VAT and therefore are not affected.

Get certified with CPA Books #

Getting compliant with CPA Books is very easy.

Your company is requested by the tax administration to deliver a certificate of conformity testifying that your software complies with the anti-fraud legislation. This certificate is granted by CPA Books SA to CPA Books Enterprise users here. If you use CPA Books Community, you should upgrade to CPA Books Enterprise or contact your CPA Books service provider.

In case of non-conformity, your company risks a fine of €7,500.

To get the certification, just follow the following steps:

  • If you use CPA Books Point of Saleinstall the France – VAT Anti-Fraud Certification for Point of Sale (CGI 286 I-3 bis) module by going to Apps, removing the Apps filter, then searching for l10n_fr_pos_cert, and installing the module.
  • Make sure a country is set on your company, otherwise your entries won’t be encrypted for the inalterability check. To edit your company’s data, go to Settings ‣ Users & Companies ‣ Companies. Select a country from the list; Do not create a new country.
  • Download the mandatory certificate of conformity delivered by CPA Books SA here.

Anti-fraud features #

The anti-fraud module introduces the following features:

  • Inalterability: deactivation of all the ways to cancel or modify key data of POS orders, invoices and journal entries;
  • Security: chaining algorithm to verify the inalterability;
  • Storage: automatic sales closings with computation of both period and cumulative totals (daily, monthly, annually).

Inalterability #

All the possible ways to cancel and modify key data of paid POS orders, confirmed invoices and journal entries are deactivated, if the company is located in France or in any DOM-TOM.

Security #

To ensure inalterability, every order or journal entry is encrypted upon validation. This number (or hash) is calculated from the key data of the document as well as from the hash of the precedent documents.

The module introduces an interface to test the data inalterability. If any information is modified on a document after its validation, the test will fail. The algorithm recomputes all the hashes and compares them against the initial ones. In case of failure, the system points out the first corrupted document recorded in the system.

Users with Manager access rights can launch the inalterability check. For POS orders, go to Point of Sales ‣ Reporting ‣ French Statements. For invoices or journal entries, go to Invoicing/Accounting ‣ Reporting ‣ French Statements.

Storage #

The system also processes automatic sales closings on a daily, monthly and annual basis. Such closings distinctly compute the sales total of the period as well as the cumulative grand totals from the very first sales entry recorded in the system.

Closings can be found in the French Statements menu of Point of Sale, Invoicing and Accounting apps.

Responsibilities #

Do not uninstall the module! If you do so, the hashes will be reset and none of your past data will be longer guaranteed as being inalterable.

Users remain responsible for their CPA Books instance and must use it with due diligence. It is not permitted to modify the source code which guarantees the inalterability of data.

CPA Books absolves itself of all and any responsibility in case of changes in the module’s functions caused by 3rd party applications not certified by CPA Books .

More Information #

You can find more information about this legislation in the following official documents.